Pancasila is the official, foundational philosophical theory of the Indonesian state. Pancasila comprises two Old Javanese words originally derived from Sanskrit: “pañca” (“five”) and “sīla” (“principles”). Thus it is composed of five principles and contends that they are inseparable and interrelated:
- Belief in the One and Only God (in Indonesian “Ketuhanan Yang Maha Esa”),
- A just and civilized humanity (in Indonesian “Kemanusiaan Yang Adil dan Beradab”),
- A unified Indonesia (in Indonesian “Persatuan Indonesia”),
- Democracy, led by the wisdom of the representatives of the People (in Indonesian “Kerakyatan Yang Dipimpin oleh Hikmat Kebijaksanaan, Dalam Permusyawaratan Perwakilan”),
- Social justice for all Indonesians (in Indonesian “Keadilan Sosial bagi seluruh Rakyat Indonesia”).
The iteration of Pancasila that Sukarno presented on 1 June 1945 to the Investigating Committee for Preparatory Work for Independence (Badan Penyelidik Usaha Persiapan Kemerdekaan (BPUPK)) in a speech titled “The Birth of the Pancasila.
Pancasila is believed being influenced and has borrowed some aspects of world’s values and ideologies, including nationalism, humanity, democracy, socialism and religiosity. The sila or principles reflect this influence, which argues that religiosity, humanity, unity, democracy and social justice as the shared values among Indonesians. The need to unify this diverse country also has led to the formulation of national motto Bhinneka Tunggal Ika, which can be translated as unity in diversity. It declares the essential unity of its members despite ethnic, regional, social or religious differences